Liquid metals: an ideal platform for the synthesis of two-dimensional materials†
The surfaces of liquid metals can serve as a platform to synthesise two-dimensional materials. By exploiting the self-limiting Cabrera-Mott oxidation reaction that takes place at the surface of liquid metals exposed to ambient air, an ultrathin oxide layer can be synthesised and isolated. Several synthesis approaches based on this phenomenon have been developed in recent years, resulting in a diverse family of functional 2D materials that covers a significant fraction of the periodic table. These straightforward and inherently scalable techniques may enable the fabrication of novel devices and thus harbour significant application potential. This review provides a brief introduction to liquid metals and their alloys, followed by detailed guidance on each developed synthesis technique, post-growth processing methods, integration processes, as well as potential applications of the developed materials.