Metastable intermediate during hIAPP aggregation catalyzed by membranes as detected with 2D IR spectroscopy
The aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) into amyloid fibrils involves formation of oligomeric intermediates that are thought to be the cytotoxic species responsible for β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. hIAPP oligomers permeating or disrupting the cellular membrane may be one mechanism of toxicity and so measuring the structural kinetics of aggregation in the presence of membranes is of much interest. In this study, we use 2D IR spectroscopy and 13C18O isotope labeling to study the secondary structure of the oligomeric intermediates formed in solution and in the presence of phospholipid vesicles at sites L12A13, L16V17, G24A25 and V32G33. Pairs of labels monitor the couplings between associated polypeptides and the dihedral angles between adjacent residues. In solution, the L12A13 residues form an oligomeric β-sheet in addition to an α-helix whereas with the phospholipid vesicles they are α-helical throughout the aggregation process. In both solution and with DOPC vesicles, L16V17 and V32G33 have disordered structures until fibrils are formed. Similarly, under both conditions, G24A25 exhibits 3-state kinetics, created by an oligomeric intermediate with a well-defined β-sheet structure. Amyloid fibril formation is often thought to involve intermediates with exceedingly low populations that are difficult to detect experimentally. These experiments establish that amyloid fibril formation of hIAPP when catalyzed by membranes includes a metastable intermediate and that this intermediate has a similar structure at G24A25 in the FGAIL region as the corresponding intermediate in solution, thought to be the toxic species.