Azanone (HNO): generation, stabilization and detection
HNO (nitroxyl, azanone), joined the ‘biologically relevant reactive nitrogen species’ family in the 2000s. Azanone is impossible to store due to its high reactivity and inherent low stability. Consequently, its chemistry and effects are studied using donor compounds, which release this molecule in solution and in the gas phase upon stimulation. Researchers have also tried to stabilize this elusive species and its conjugate base by coordination to metal centers using several ligands, like metalloporphyrins and pincer ligands. Given HNO's high reactivity and short lifetime, several different strategies have been proposed for its detection in chemical and biological systems, such as colorimetric methods, EPR, HPLC, mass spectrometry, fluorescent probes, and electrochemical analysis. These approaches are described and critically compared. Finally, in the last ten years, several advances regarding the possibility of endogenous HNO generation were made; some of them are also revised in the present work.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2021 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection