Eutectics: formation, properties, and applications
Various eutectic systems have been proposed and studied over the past few decades. Most of the studies have focused on three typical types of eutectics: eutectic metals, eutectic salts, and deep eutectic solvents. On the one hand, they are all eutectic systems, and their eutectic principle is the same. On the other hand, they are representative of metals, inorganic salts, and organic substances, respectively. They have applications in almost all fields related to chemistry. Their different but overlapping applications stem from their very different properties. In addition, the proposal of new eutectic systems has greatly boosted the development of cross-field research involving chemistry, materials, engineering, and energy. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of these typical eutectics and describe task-specific strategies to address growing demands.