Photoinduced 1,2-dicarbofunctionalization of alkenes with organotrifluoroborate nucleophiles via radical/polar crossover†
Alkene 1,2-dicarbofunctionalizations are highly sought-after transformations as they enable a rapid increase of molecular complexity in one synthetic step. Traditionally, these conjunctive couplings proceed through the intermediacy of alkylmetal species susceptible to deleterious pathways including β-hydride elimination and protodemetalation. Herein, an intermolecular 1,2-dicarbofunctionalization using alkyl N-(acyloxy)phthalimide redox-active esters as radical progenitors and organotrifluoroborates as carbon-centered nucleophiles is reported. This redox-neutral, multicomponent reaction is postulated to proceed through photochemical radical/polar crossover to afford a key carbocation species that undergoes subsequent trapping with organoboron nucleophiles to accomplish the carboallylation, carboalkenylation, carboalkynylation, and carboarylation of alkenes with regio- and chemoselective control. The mechanistic intricacies of this difunctionalization were elucidated through Stern–Volmer quenching studies, photochemical quantum yield measurements, and trapping experiments of radical and ionic intermediates.