Recent advances in activity-based probes (ABPs) and affinity-based probes (AfBPs) for profiling of enzymes
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a technique that uses highly selective active-site targeted chemical probes to label and monitor the state of proteins. ABPP integrates the strengths of both chemical and biological disciplines. By utilizing chemically synthesized or modified bioactive molecules, ABPP is able to reveal complex physiological and pathological enzyme–substrate interactions at molecular and cellular levels. It is also able to provide critical information of the catalytic activity changes of enzymes, annotate new functions of enzymes, discover new substrates of enzymes, and allow real-time monitoring of the cellular location of enzymes. Based on the mechanism of probe-enzyme interaction, two types of probes that have been used in ABPP are activity-based probes (ABPs) and affinity-based probes (AfBPs). This review highlights the recent advances in the use of ABPs and AfBPs, and summarizes their design strategies (based on inhibitors and substrates) and detection approaches.
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