An orthogonal and reactivity-based one-pot glycosylation strategy for both glycan and nucleoside synthesis: access to TMG-chitotriomycin, lipochitooligosaccharides and capuramycin†
Both glycans (O-glycosides) and nucleosides (N-glycosides) play important roles in numerous biological processes. Chemical synthesis is a reliable and effective means to solve the attainability issues of these essential biomolecules. However, due to the stereo- and regiochemical issues during glycan assembly, together with problems including the poor solubility and nucleophilicity of nucleobases in nucleoside synthesis, the development of one-pot glycosylation strategies toward efficient synthesis of both glycans and nucleosides remains poor and challenging. Here, we report the first orthogonal and reactivity-based one-pot glycosylation strategy suitable for both glycan and nucleoside synthesis on the basis of glycosyl ortho-(1-phenylvinyl)benzoates. This one-pot glycosylation strategy not only inherits the advantages including no aglycon transfers, no undesired interference of departing species, and no unpleasant odors associated with the previously developed orthogonal one-pot glycosylation strategy based on glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoates, but also highly expands the scope (glycans and nucleosides) and increases the number of leaving groups that could be employed for the multistep one-pot synthesis (up to the formation of four different glycosidic bonds). In particular, the current one-pot glycosylation strategy is successfully applied to the total synthesis of a promising tuberculosis drug lead capuramycin and the divergent and formal synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin with potent and specific inhibition activities toward β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and important endosymbiotic lipochitooligosaccharides including the Nod factor and the Myc factor, which represents one of the most efficient and straightforward synthetic routes toward these biologically salient molecules.