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Issue 7, 2021
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Investigating states of gas in water encapsulated between graphene layers

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Abstract

Conventionally, only two states are assumed to exist in water: well-dispersed gas monomers and gas bubbles. Rarely is this paradigm explored experimentally. To close this gap, here we used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study degassed water, deionized water, and gas-supersaturated water encapsulated in graphene liquid cells. While neither degassed water nor deionized water yielded specific features, two major microscopic structures were evident in gas-supersaturated water: (1) polycrystalline nanoparticles formed of gas molecules and (2) a high density of tiny cells. Dark-field TEM imaging revealed that water molecules surrounding each cell form crystalline structures—a surprising discovery of a clathrate state in gas-supersaturated water that may help resolve several long-standing puzzles. Overall, this study suggests that water may form a matrix that actively interacts with gas molecules in complex and subtle ways.

Graphical abstract: Investigating states of gas in water encapsulated between graphene layers

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
13 Nov 2020
Accepted
02 Jan 2021
First published
04 Jan 2021

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2021,12, 2635-2645
Article type
Edge Article

Investigating states of gas in water encapsulated between graphene layers

W. Hsu and I. Hwang, Chem. Sci., 2021, 12, 2635
DOI: 10.1039/D0SC06262F

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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