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Chemical characterization, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and enzyme inhibitory effects of different extracts from one sage (Salvia ceratophylla L.) from Turkey: open a new window on industrial purposes

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Abstract

In the present study, the methanolic, hydro-methanolic, dichloromethane, hexane and aqueous extracts of Salvia ceratophylla L. (Family: Lamiaceae), a lemon-scented herb, were tested for total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities were evaluated using a battery of assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (phosphomolybdenum) and metal chelating). Enzyme inhibitory effects were investigated using acetyl- (AChE), butyryl-cholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase as target enzymes. Regarding the cytotoxic abilities, HepG2, B164A5 and S17 cell lines were used. The phytochemical profile was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our data showed that the methanolic aerial extracts possessed the highest phenolic (72.50 ± 0.63 mg gallic acid equivalent per g) and flavonoid (43.77 ± 1.09 mg rutin equivalent per g) contents. The hydro-methanolic aerial extract showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity (193.40 ± 0.27 mg TE per g) and the highest reducing potential against CUPRAC (377.93 ± 2.38 mg TE per g). The best tyrosinase activity was observed with dichloromethane root extract (125.45 ± 1.41 mg kojic acid equivalent per g). Among the tested extracts, hexane root extract exerted the highest antimicrobial potential with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 0.048 mg mL−1. Methanolic root extract showed the lowest cytotoxicity (28%) against HepG2 cells. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of important polyphenolic compounds including luteolin, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, to name a few. This research can be used as one methodological starting point for further investigations on this lemon-scented herb.

Graphical abstract: Chemical characterization, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and enzyme inhibitory effects of different extracts from one sage (Salvia ceratophylla L.) from Turkey: open a new window on industrial purposes

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Article information


Submitted
27 Nov 2020
Accepted
19 Jan 2021
First published
28 Jan 2021

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2021,11, 5295-5310
Article type
Paper

Chemical characterization, cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and enzyme inhibitory effects of different extracts from one sage (Salvia ceratophylla L.) from Turkey: open a new window on industrial purposes

S. Uysal, G. Zengin, K. I. Sinan, G. Ak, R. Ceylan, M. F. Mahomoodally, A. Uysal, N. B. Sadeer, J. Jekő, Z. Cziáky, M. J. Rodrigues, E. Yıldıztugay, F. Elbasan and L. Custodio, RSC Adv., 2021, 11, 5295
DOI: 10.1039/D0RA10044G

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