Multicomponent reactions as a potent tool for the synthesis of benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines (BZDs), a diverse class of benzofused seven-membered N-heterocycles, display essential pharmacological properties and play vital roles in some biochemical processes. They have mainly been prescribed as potential therapeutic agents, which interestingly represent various biological activities such as anticancer, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antituberculosis, muscle relaxant, and antimicrobial activities. The extensive biological activities of BZDs in various fields have encouraged medicinal chemists to discover and design novel BZD-based scaffolds as potential therapeutic candidates with the favorite biological activity through an efficient protocol. Although certainly valuable and important, conventional synthetic routes to these bicyclic benzene compounds contain methodologies often requiring multistep procedures, which suffer from waste materials generation and lack of sustainability. By contrast, multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have recently advanced as a green synthetic strategy for synthesizing BZDs with the desired scope. In this regard, MCRs, especially Ugi and Ugi-type reactions, efficiently and conveniently supply various complex synthons, which can easily be converted to the BZDs via suitable post-transformations. Also, MCRs, especially Mannich-type reactions, provide speedy and economic approaches for the one-pot and one-step synthesis of BZDs. As a result, various functionalized-BZDs have been achieved by developing mild, efficient, and high-yielding MCR protocols. This review covers all aspects of the synthesis of BZDs with a particular focus on the MCRs as well as the mechanism chemistry of synthetic protocols. The present manuscript opens a new avenue for organic, medicinal, and industrial chemists to design safe, environmentally benign, and economical methods for the synthesis of new and known BZDs.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Synthetic methodology in OBC