Lab-in-a-pencil graphite: A 3D-printed microfluidic sensing platform for real-time measurement of antipsychotic clozapine level†
A novel lab-in-a-pencil graphite microfluidic sensing electrode (μFSE) was fabricated for real-time flow injection measurement of the antipsychotic drug clozapine (Clz). A simple, low-cost, and reusable μFSE was obtained by using 3D printing of a microfluidic chamber integrated with a flat pencil graphite without the need to utilize complex technologies. The μFSE has tubular geometry with 800 μm diameter, where the solution continuously flows in the holes of flat pencil graphite electrodes. Under optimized conditions, this device offers fast and effective Clz detection with good analytical features. A linear calibration curve in the range of 0.5 to 10 μM Clz was obtained with good sensitivity (0.01275 μA μM−1) and detection limit (24 nM). Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our lab-fabricated microfluidic electrochemical device by monitoring Clz in serum samples at low concentrations.