Critical assessment of reaction pathways for conversion of agricultural waste biomass into formic acid
Reaction pathways for conversion of agricultural waste biomass into formic acid are reviewed for established (fast pyrolysis, acid hydrolysis, wet oxidation, catalytic oxidation), and cutting-edge (photocatalysis, electrocatalysis) methods. Characteristics of each reaction pathway are analyzed and ranked with sustainability indicators (environment, economic, social) and lead to the conclusion that catalytic oxidation has the highest sustainability score for conversion of agricultural waste biomass to formic acid in terms of yield, waste emissions, feedstock cost, and innovation potential. Reaction systems for catalytic oxidation are analyzed in detail including catalysts, oxidants, solvents, catalyst recycle and product separation including large-scale aspects. Future perspectives and challenges for the efficient conversion of agricultural waste biomass into formic acid are proposed.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Green Chemistry Reviews