Effects of ethyl acetate extract from Coreopsis tinctoria on learning and memory impairment in d-galactose-induced aging mice and the underlying molecular mechanism†
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate extract from Coreopsis tinctoria (EACC) on learning and memory impairment in D-galactose-induced aging mice and the underlying molecular mechanism. The composition of EACC was analyzed by UPLC-MS, and the targets and pathways of EACC to improve learning and memory impairment were predicted and analyzed by the network pharmacology method. A mouse aging model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose in mice, and EACC and piracetam were given to the model mice by gavage to observe their behavioral changes and changes in their SOD and GSH-Px activities in MDA contents in their peripheral blood serum and in the contents of Glu and GABA in their brain tissues. Then the hippocampus of the three mice selected from each of the MOD group and EACC-H group was separated for RT-qPCR assay. The results of the animal experiments showed that EACC could improve the learning and memory impairment of model mice by affecting the level of oxidative stress enzymes in serum and the content of neurotransmitters in the brain tissue. The results of network pharmacology analysis showed that the EACC components corresponded to 74 learning and memory-related targets, of which 13 were enriched in the long-term potentiation pathway. The results of RT-qPCR showed that 12 of the 13 detected targets were consistent with the predicted targets, and 9 of them were located in the NMDA receptor-related pathway of the long-term potentiation process and the pathway played an important regulatory role. It is believed that EACC could improve the learning and memory impairment of D-galactose-induced aging mice by acting on the nine targets Grin1, Grin2a, Camk2a, Camk2b, Kras, Raf1, Mapk1, Mapk3 and Creb to affect the NMDA receptor-related pathway of long-term potentiation.