Fermentation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum mushrooms and their extracts by the gut microbiota of healthy and osteopenic women: potential prebiotic effect and impact of mushroom fermentation products on human osteoblasts†
Recent data have highlighted the role of the gut microbiota and its several metabolites in maintaining bone health. Thus, gut microbiota manipulation, e.g., by prebiotics, might offer a plausible target in the fight against bone degenerative diseases. This study aimed (a) to investigate the in vitro prebiotic potential of Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms in healthy and osteopenic women and (b) to explore the impact of mushroom fermentation products on human osteoblasts. G. lucidum LGAM 9720 and P. ostreatus IK 1123 lyophilized mushroom-powders (2% w/v) and their hot-water extracts (1% w/v) were fermented in a 24 h static batch culture model by using faecal inocula from healthy (n = 3) or osteopenic (n = 3) donors. Gut microbiota analysis (qPCR) and measurement of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were performed during fermentation, and 24 h-prebiotic indexes were calculated. Evaluation of the effects of fermentation products on bone metabolism parameters (OPG: osteoprotegerin; and RANKL: receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand) in osteoblast cultures was also performed. Our data suggest that the origin of the gut microbiota inoculum plays a major role in the viability of osteoblasts. The treatments using P. ostreatus mushroom-powder and G. lucidum mushroom-extract had positive effects based on gut microbiota and SCFA analyses. Both mushrooms exhibited lower RANKL levels compared to controls, whereas their extracts tended to enhance the osteoblastic activity. In conclusion, mushrooms that are rich in beta-glucans may exert beneficial in vitro effects on bone physiology by alterations in the gut microbiota and/or SCFA production.