Non-carbon-supported single-atom site catalysts for electrocatalysis
Single-atom site catalysts (SACs) have received considerable attention for electrocatalytic applications, owing to their maximum atom-utilization efficiency, well-identified active centers, and tunable supports. Carbon-supported SACs have been widely applied in electrocatalysis, and their progress has been intensively reviewed. Non-carbon-supported SACs have drawn ever-increasing attention recently, and are emerging as an indispensable class of SACs. This review comprehensively summarizes the recent exciting progress on the non-carbon-supported SACs and their applications in electrocatalytic reactions. Eight types of non-carbon-supported SACs are firstly categorized to show their diversity. Subsequently, the anchoring and stabilization mechanisms for each type of non-carbon-supported SACs are systematically unraveled. Furthermore, the advanced characterization techniques for identifying and monitoring the atomic structure of SACs are highlighted. Thereafter, the advances of non-carbon-supported SACs for electrochemical energy conversion are discussed, which emphasizes their applications in the hydrogen evolution reaction, the oxygen evolution reaction, the oxygen reduction reaction, the N2 reduction reaction, and the CO2 reduction reaction. Finally, perspective insights into the current challenges and the future prospects for non-carbon-supported SACs are provided.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Energy and Environmental Science Recent Review Articles