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Mechanistic Study of Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries beyond Lithium Ion by In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

Abstract

Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of advanced electrode materials at the atomic scale during the electrochemical process is condemnatory to develop the high-performance rechargeable batteries. The complex electrochemical reactions involved inside a running battery, which cause intensive structural and morphological changes in electrode materials, have been explored to a certain extent by the introduction of real-time characterization techniques. In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is one of the most noteworthy diagnostic techniques to understand and monitor the dynamic electrochemical processes because of its atomic-scale resolution and real-time monitoring, which can provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics. In this review, the current progress in the development of electrode materials using in-situ TEM for rechargeable batteries beyond lithium ion is summarized. First, the various battery designs used for in-situ TEM and their challenges are elaborated. Afterward, we systematically summarize the basic science and fundamental reactions including phase transformation and electrode/electrolyte interfaces in electrode materials for heavier alkali ion (sodium, potassium calcium and magnesium) batteries (H-AIBs). Particularly, the real-time insights into three types of electrochemical mechanisms: intercalation, alloying, and conversion reactions is elaborated. Moreover, in-situ electrode chemistry in lithium sulfur batteries (Li-S) and alkali-metal oxygen batteries (AOBs) including lithium, sodium and potassium oxygen batteries, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) is also discussed. Finally, we provide the summary and future perspective of in-situ TEM in rechargeable batteries along with the most feasible electrode designing.

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Article information


Submitted
16 Oct 2020
Accepted
22 Feb 2021
First published
22 Feb 2021

Energy Environ. Sci., 2021, Accepted Manuscript
Article type
Review Article

Mechanistic Study of Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries beyond Lithium Ion by In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

S. Guo, Y. Muhammad, U. Naseer, Y. Li, Z. Ali, N. Mahmood, L. Wang and P. Gao, Energy Environ. Sci., 2021, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D0EE03295F

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