Designs from single junctions, heterojunctions to multijunctions for high-performance perovskite solar cells
Hybrid metal-halide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) have drawn unprecedented attention during the last decade due to their superior photovoltaic performance, facile and low-cost fabrication, and potential for roll-to-roll mass production and application for portable devices. Through collective composition, interface, and process engineering, a comprehensive understanding of the structure–property relationship and carrier dynamics of perovskites has been established to help achieve a very high certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.5%. Apart from material properties, the modified heterojunction design and device configuration evolution also play crucial roles in enhancing the efficiency. The adoption and/or modification of heterojunction structures have been demonstrated to effectively suppress the carrier recombination and potential losses in PVSCs. Moreover, the employment of multijunction structures has been shown to reduce thermalization losses, achieving a high PCE of 29.52% in perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells. Therefore, understanding the evolution of the device configuration of PVSCs from single junction, heterojunction to multijunction designs is helpful for the researchers in this field to further boost the PCE beyond 30%. Herein, we summarize the evolution and progress of the single junction, heterojunction and multijunction designs for high-performance PVSCs. A comprehensive review of the fundamentals and working principles of these designs is presented. We first introduce the basic working principles of single junction PVSCs and the intrinsic properties (such as crystallinity and defects) in perovskite films. Afterwards, the progress of diverse heterojunction designs and perovskite-based multijunction solar cells is synopsized and reviewed. Meanwhile, the challenges and strategies to further enhance the performance are also summarized. At the end, the perspectives on the future development of perovskite-based solar cells are provided. We hope this review can provide the readers with a quick catchup on this emerging solution-processable photovoltaic technology, which is currently at the transition stage towards commercialization.