Designing flexible, smart and self-sustainable supercapacitors for portable/wearable electronics: from conductive polymers
The rapid development of portable/wearable electronics proposes new demands for energy storage devices, which are flexibility, smart functions and long-time outdoor operation. Supercapacitors (SCs) show great potential in portable/wearable applications, and the recently developed flexible, smart and self-sustainable supercapacitors greatly meet the above demands. In these supercapacitors, conductive polymers (CPs) are widely applied due to their high flexibility, conductivity, pseudo-capacitance, smart characteristics and moderate preparation conditions. Herein, we’d like to introduce the CP-based flexible, smart and self-sustainable supercapacitors for portable/wearable electronics. This review first summarizes the flexible SCs based on CPs and their composites with carbon materials and metal compounds. The smart supercapacitors, i.e., electrochromic, electrochemical actuated, stretchable, self-healing and stimuli-sensitive ones, are then presented. The self-sustainable SCs which integrate SC units with energy-harvesting units in one compact configuration are also introduced. The last section highlights some current challenges and future perspectives of this thriving field.