Inverted and fused expanded heteroporphyrins
Expanded heteroporphyrins are a class of porphyrin macrocycles containing pyrrole, thiophene, furan, selenophene and other heterocyclic rings that are connected to form an internal ring pathway containing a minimum of 17 atoms and more than 18 delocalized π electrons in their conjugated macrocyclic framework. Considering that expanded heteroporphyrins are large in size, these macrocycles are structurally flexible and prefer to adopt various conformations in which one or more pyrrole(s)/heterocycle(s) tend to be in an inverted conformation and pointed outward from the centre of the macrocyclic core. The inverted expanded heteroporphyrins are divided into two classes as follows: (1) N-inverted expanded heteroporphyrins and (2) hetero-atom inverted expanded heteroporphyrins. Both inverted expanded heteroporphyrins show quite unique features in terms of their structure, aromaticity, and electronic and coordination properties. Sometimes, inverted expanded heteroporphyrins lead to the formation of fused expanded heteroporphyrins because of the intramolecular fusion of the pyrrole “N” with the “C” of the inverted heterocycle ring, which also exhibit unique features compared to inverted expanded heteroporphyrins. In this review, we attempt to describe the synthesis, structure, and aromatic, electronic and coordination properties of inverted and fused expanded heteroporphyrins. This review covers the synthesis, structure and properties of inverted and fused expanded heteroporphyrins containing a combination of pyrrole/heterocycle rings starting with five pyrrole/heterocycle-containing pentaphyrins, and then expanded heteroporphyrins containing six, seven, eight and more pyrrole/heterocyclic rings in their porphyrin macrocyclic framework.