Recent advances in visible light-activated radical coupling reactions triggered by (i) ruthenium, (ii) iridium and (iii) organic photoredox agents
Photoredox chemistry with organic or transition metal agents has been reviewed in earlier years, but such is the pace of progress that we will overlap very little with earlier comprehensive reviews. This review first presents an overview of the area of research and then examines recent examples of C–C, C–N, C–O and C–S bond formations via radical intermediates with transition metal and organic radical promoters. Recent successes with Birch reductions are also included. The transition metal chemistry will be restricted to photocatalysts based on the most widely used metals, Ru and Ir, but includes coupling chemistries that take advantage of low-valent nickel, or occasionally copper, complexes to process the radicals that are formed. Our focus is on developments in the past 10 years (2011–2021). This period has also seen great advances in the chemistry of organic photoredox reagents and the review covers this area. The review is intended to present highlights and is not comprehensive.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Radical Chemistry