Customized materials-assisted microorganisms in tumor therapeutics
Microorganisms have been extensively applied as active biotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles for antitumor treatment because of their unparalleled bio-functionalities. Taking advantage of the living attributes of microorganisms, a new avenue has been opened in anticancer research. The integration of customized functional materials with living microorganisms has demonstrated unprecedented potential in solving existing questions and even conferring microorganisms with updated antitumor abilities and has also provided an innovative train of thought for enhancing the efficacy of microorganism-based tumor therapy. In this review, we have summarized the emerging development of customized materials-assisted microorganisms (MAMO) (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, microalgae, as well as their components) in tumor therapeutics with an emphasis on the rational utilization of chosen microorganisms and tailored materials, the ingenious design of biohybrid systems, and the efficacious antitumor mechanisms. The future perspectives and challenges in this field are also discussed.