Solvent-assisted crystallization of two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite†
Two dimensional (2D) perovskite materials, are more stable than 3D perovskite materials, which could solve the stability issue of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs based on 2D perovskite materials was low, due to the high dielectric and quantum confinement of 2D perovskite. In this work, we propose a solvent-assisted method to prepare 2D perovskite films, where the solvent was distributed in a gradient. Therefore, the top-down crystallization process of 2D perovskite can be accurately controlled. The PCE of PSCs fabricated by the solvent-assisted method was enhanced by 48%, compared with the control device. For the packaged devices, the stability test demonstrated that 94% of the initial PCE was still maintained after 1500 hours of storage (25 °C, RH 40%). After carefully analyzing the photophysical process of the carriers in the PSCs based on 2D perovskite, the enhanced carrier transfer mechanism of the solvent-assisted method has been proposed.