Moderating cellular inflammation using 2-dimensional titanium carbide MXene and graphene variants†
The effective control of microbial and metabolically derived biological toxins which negatively impact physical health remains a key challenge for the 21st century. 2-Dimensional graphene and MXene nanomaterials are relatively new additions to the field of biomedical materials with superior external surface areas suited to adsorptive remediation of biological toxins. However, relatively little is known about their physiological interactions with biological systems and, to date, no comparative biological studies have been done. This study compares titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) in multilayered and delaminated forms with graphene variants to assess the impact of variable physical properties on cellular inflammatory response to endotoxin stimulus. No significant impact on cell metabolism or induction of inflammatory pathways leading to cell death was observed. No significant increase in markers of blood cell activation and haemolysis occurred. Whilst graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), graphene oxide (GO) and Ti3C2Tx showed insignificant antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli, silver nanoparticle-modified GO (GO-Ag) induced bacterial cell death and at a lower dose than silver nanoparticles. All nanomaterials significantly reduced bacterial endotoxin induced THP-1 monocyte IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine production by >99%, >99% and >80% respectively, compared to control groups. This study suggests the utility of these nanomaterials as adsorbents in blood contacting medical device applications for removal of inflammatory cytokines linked to poor outcome in patients with life-threatening infection.