High-sensitivity detection of two H7 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) by immunochromatographic assay with highly chromatic red silica nanoparticles†
In this work, a sensitive and quantitative immunochromatographic assay (ICA) detection method for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) antigen was established based on highly chromatic red silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). It can detect two H7 subtypes of influenza viruses, H7N2 and H7N9. The highly chromatic red SiNPs were prepared by adsorbing C.I. Direct Red 224 on the surface of the SiNPs for multiple times using the layer by layer (LbL) self-assembly method under the electrostatic action of ethylene imine polymer (PEI) and poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The highly chromatic red silica nanoparticles modified with anti-H7 HA mAb1 were used as immunodetection probes. The accumulated highly chromatic red SiNPs on the T-line can be observed by the naked eye to qualitatively detect the H7 HA antigen. The quantitative analysis is carried out by using a camera and Image J software. Within the range of 0.1–10 ng mL−1, the linear equation between the H7 HA antigen concentration and the peak area of the T-line gray value was y = 868.9722 + 435.4836X (R2 = 0.9716), and the limit of detection (LOD) of this method was 0.08 pg mL−1 (S/N = 3). The highly chromatic red SiNP based ICA for the detection of H7 HA has no cross activity with other subtypes of influenza viruses. This method of combining highly chromatic colored markers with ICA has great potential in practical applications for the rapid and quantitative detection of other types of AIVs.