Smartphone-based colorimetric detection systems for glucose monitoring in the diagnosis and management of diabetes
Diabetes is a group of metabolic conditions resulting in high blood sugar levels over prolonged periods that affects hundreds of millions of patients worldwide. Measuring glucose concentration enables patient-specific insulin therapy, and is essential to reduce the severity of the disease, potential complications, and related mortalities. Recent advances and developments in smartphone-based colorimetric glucose detection systems are discussed in this review. The importance of glucose monitoring, data collection, transfer, and analysis, via non-invasive/invasive methods is highlighted. The review also presents various approaches using 3D-printed materials, screen-printed electrodes, polymer templates, designs allowing multiple glucose analysis, bioanalytes and/or nanostructures for glucose detection. The positive effects of advances in improving the performance of smartphone-based platforms are introduced along with future directions and trends in the application of emerging technologies in smartphone-based diagnostics.