Effect of lipid heterogeneity on model human brain lipid membranes
Cell membranes naturally contain a heterogeneous lipid distribution. However, homogeneous bilayers are commonly preferred and utilised in computer simulations due to their relative simplicity, and the availability of lipid force field parameters. Recently, experimental lipidomics data for the human brain cell membranes under healthy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) conditions were investigated, since disruption to the lipid composition have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD [Chan et al, J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 2678–88]. In order to observe the effects of lipid complexity on the various bilayer properties, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study four membranes with increasing heterogeneity: pure 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), POPC and cholesterol in a 1:1 ratio (POPC-CHOL), and to our knowledge, the first realistic models of a healthy brain membrane and an Alzheimer's diseased brain membrane. Numerous structural, interfacial, and dynamic properties, including the area per lipid, interdigitation, lateral diffusion, and dipole potential of the two simple models, POPC and POPC-CHOL, were analysed and compared to those of the complex brain models consisting of 27 lipid components. As the membranes gain heterogeneity, a number of alterations were found in the structural and dynamical properties, and more significant differences were observed in the dipole potential and lateral diffusion. Additionally, we observed snorkeling behaviour of the lipid tails that may play a role in the permeation of small molecules across biological membranes. In this work, atomistic description of realistic brain membrane models is provided, which can add insight towards the permeability and transport pathways of small molecules across these membrane barriers.