Statistical optimization of photo-induced biofabrication of silver nanoparticles using the cell extract of Oscillatoria limnetica: insight on characterization and antioxidant potentiality
Silver nanoparticles were successfully fabricated through a very simple, rapid, one-step photo-induced green approach. The formation of silver nanoparticles was accomplished using the bioactive compounds in the aqueous extract of fresh Oscillatoria limnetica biomass, which acted as a reducing and capping agent at the same time. The biosynthesis of Oscillatoria-silver nanoparticles (O-AgNPs) was investigated under the influence of different light intensities 57.75, 75.90 and 1276.51 μmol m−2 s−1 (bright sunlight). UV-Vis (UV) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were applied to approve the synthesis of AgNPs. Further, the synthesis process under the exposure to sunlight was adjusted via utilizing one factor at a time, and 0.5 mM AgNO3 concentration, 5 mL O. limnetica solution, pH 6.7 and 30 min sunlight (1276.51 μmol m−2 s−1) were applied. Furthermore, the central composite design (CCD) was applied to boost the biosynthesis process of O-AgNPs (manufactured at light intensity 75.90 μmol m−2 s−1). The maximum production of O-AgNPs was attained with 4 detected variables: initial pH level (6.7), AgNO3 concentration (0.3 mM), O. limnetica extract concentration (3.50 mL) and incubation time (48 h). Moreover, TEM, in addition to SEM, images exposed that the biosynthesized AgNPs were quasi-spherical in shape with a small monodisperse nature, and the size range was between 6.98–23.48 nm in the case of light-induced synthesis (75.90 μmol m−2 s−1) and 11.58–22.31 nm with sunlight (1276.51 μmol m−2 s−1).