When biomolecules meet 2-hydrazinopyrazine: from theory through experiment to molecular levels using a wide spectrum of techniques†
The design of drug structures that are non-toxic, easily transported and permeable to cellular barriers is currently one of the most growing research trends. Indeed, the structural similarity of 2-hydrazinopyrazine (2HP) to pyrazinamide, which has been successfully used in anti-tuberculosis therapy, makes 2HP a promising research object. Thus, herein, a complete analysis of the structure of 2HP and its physicochemical and cytotoxic properties was performed. Calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding studies were conducted, which demonstrated the higher affinity of 2HP to BSA. Furthermore, cytotoxicity tests were performed, which proved that 2HP was non-toxic to human skin keratinocyte cells. Accordingly, 2HP was initially classified as a compound with potential application. Physicochemical investigations were performed using a wide range of experiments, which were supported by DFT calculations using the B3LYP functional and 6-311+G** basis set. The good correlation, high quality and correctness of the obtained parameters were proven although the data was obtained using independent techniques. Additionally, 42 tautomeric (prototrophic) forms of 2HP were found by searching the conformational hyperspace. The most energy stable 2HP conformer structure and the partial charge distribution were established. The preferred 2HP ionic forms preferred were presented, and models of the equilibrium occurring in aqueous solution were proposed. The hydrophilic character of 2HP was established based on the partition coefficient values determined by both experiment and theory. The PCM and SMD solvent models of water and n-octanol were used.