Morphology, structural, thermal and rheological properties of wheat starch–palmitic acid complexes prepared during steam cooking
This work aimed to determine the changes in the morphology, complexation degree, the structural, thermal, and rheological properties of starch–fatty acid complexes during steam cooking. In this study, wheat starch with certain water and palmitic acid contents were steamed for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 h. The complexing index (CI) first decreased and then progressively increased with the prolonging of steam cooking time. The decrease in CI was associated with the decomposition of the complex layer formed on the granule surface at 0.5 h of steam cooking. The interaction between wheat starch and palmitic acid led to the change of starch crystal type. Prolonging treatment time promoted thermal stability and structural order degree. The type I and IIa complexes reached saturation and fatty acids in the interstitial space between helices increased with excessive treatment times. Rheological behavior analysis showed that the viscoelasticity and deformation degree of samples decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing steam cooking time. Results showed that the thermostability and order degree of the complex layer were lower than those of samples with long treatment times and complexing was effective during steam cooking.