Graphene quantum dot based materials for sensing, bio-imaging and energy storage applications: a review
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are an attractive nanomaterial consisting of a monolayer or a few layers of graphene having excellent and unique properties. GQDs are endowed with the properties of both carbon dots (CDs) and graphene. This review addresses applications of GQD based materials in sensing, bioimaging and energy storage. In the first part of the review, different approaches of GQD synthesis such as top-down and bottom-up synthesis methods have been discussed. The prime focus of this review is on green synthesis methods that have also been applied to the synthesis of GQDs. The GQDs have been discussed thoroughly for all the aspects along with their potential applications in sensors, biomedicine, and energy storage systems. In particular, emphasis is given to popular applications such as electrochemical and photoluminescence (PL) sensors, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensors, humidity and gas sensors, bioimaging, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, supercapacitors and dye-sensitized solar cells. Finally, the challenges and the future perspectives of GQDs in the aforementioned application fields have been discussed.