Applications of Cu(0) encapsulated nanocatalysts as superior catalytic systems in Cu-catalyzed organic transformations
Recently, Cu nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into various materials as supports (e.g., zeolite, silica) have attracted much devotion due to their unique catalytic properties such as high catalytic activity, intensive reactivity and selectivity through highly protective properties. Nowadays, the superior catalytic activity of Cu-NPs, encapsulated onto zeolite, silica and different porous systems, is extensively investigated and now well-established. As a matter of fact, Cu-NPs are protected from deactivation by this kind of encapsulation. Thus, their exclusion proceeds smoothly, and their recyclability is significantly increased. Cu-NPs have been used as potential heterogeneous catalysts in different chemical transformations. In this review, we try to show the preparation and applications of Cu(0) encapsulated nanocatalysts in zeolite and silica as superior catalytic systems in Cu-catalyzed organic transformations. In addition, the catalytic activity of these encapsulated Cu-NPs in different important organic transformations (such as hydrogenation, oxidation and carbon–carbon bond formations) are compared with those of a variety of organic, inorganic and hybrid porous bearing a traded metal ion. Moreover, the results from the TGA/DTA analysis and optical properties of Cu-complexes are demonstrated. The inherited characteristic merits of the encapsulated Cu-NPs onto zeolite and silica, such as their low leaching, catalytic activity, reusability economic feasibility and originality are critically considered.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2020 Reviews in RSC Advances