Atomic force microscopy and Raman spectra profile of blood components associated with exposure to cigarette smoking
Tobacco smoke contains several compounds with oxidant and pro-oxidant properties with the capability of producing structural changes in biomolecules, as well as cell damage. This work aimed to describe and analyse the effect of tobacco smoke on human blood components, red blood cell (RBC) membrane, haemoglobin (Hb) and blood plasma by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate that tobacco induced RBC membrane nano-alterations characterized by diminished RBC diameter and increased nano-vesicles formation, and RBC fragility. The Raman spectra profile suggests modifications in chemical composition specifically found in peaks 1135 cm−1, 1156 cm−1, 1452 cm−1 and intensity relation of peaks 1195 cm−1 and 1210 cm−1 of blood plasma and by change of peaks 1338 cm−1, 1357 cm−1, 1549 cm−1 and 1605 cm−1 associated with the pyrrole ring of Hb. The relevance of these results lies in the identification of a profile of structural and chemical alterations that serves as a biomarker of physiological and pathological conditions in the human blood components induced by tobacco exposure using AFM and the Raman spectroscopy as tools for monitoring them.