Direct electrochemical detection of clozapine by RuO2 nanoparticles-modified screen-printed electrode
This study introduces the sensitive electrochemical detection of clozapine with the use of a ruthenium(IV) oxide nanoparticle (RuO2 NP)-modified screen-printed electrode (RuO2 NPs/SPE). The electrochemical behaviors of clozapine at RuO2 NP/SPE have been examined via cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperometry (CHA). According to the results, the modified electrode has been accompanied by a decreasing over-potential (ca. 170 mV) and enhancement in the peak current (3 times) in comparison with the bare SPE. The results indicated that RuO2 NP/SPE markedly augmented electro-catalytic activities toward clozapine oxidation. In addition, linear responses have been observed in the range between 0.2 and 500.0 μM with a sensitivity of 0.076 μA μM−1 and a limitation of detection of 0.07 μM (3σ). Moreover, the successful application of RuO2 NP/SPE has been seen in detecting clozapine in real samples, which showed satisfied recoveries. Therefore, outputs suggest that RuO2 NP/SPE will be promising for functional utilization.