Development of novel N-(6-methanesulfonyl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-substituted-piperazin-1-yl)-propionamides with cholinesterase inhibition, anti-β-amyloid aggregation, neuroprotection and cognition enhancing properties for the therapy of Alzheimer's disease†
A novel series of benzothiazole–piperazine hybrids were rationally designed, synthesized, and evaluated as multifunctional ligands against Alzheimer's disease (AD). The synthesized hybrid molecules illustrated modest to strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ1-42 aggregation. Compound 12 emerged as the most potent hybrid molecule exhibiting balanced functions with effective, uncompetitive and selective inhibition against AChE (IC50 = 2.31 μM), good copper chelation, Aβ1-42 aggregation inhibition (53.30%) and disaggregation activities. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and TEM analysis also validate the Aβ fibril inhibition ability of this compound. Furthermore, this compound has also shown low toxicity and is capable of impeding loss of cell viability elicited by H2O2 neurotoxicity in SHSY-5Y cells. Notably, compound 12 significantly improved cognition and spatial memory against scopolamine-induced memory deficit in a mouse model. Hence, our results corroborate the multifunctional nature of novel hybrid molecule 12 against AD and it may be a suitable lead for further development as an effective therapeutic agent for therapy in the future.