iTRAQ-based proteomic and physiological analyses of mustard sprouts in response to heat stress†
Heat stress has been proved to increase the content of melatonin in plants. In the present study, a combination of methods including physiological and biochemical, gene transcription and proteomic were used to investigate the melatonin accumulation mechanisms in mustard sprouts under heat treatment during the germination period. It was revealed that the heat treatment can significantly affect sprout growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and melatonin content in mustard sprouts. Meanwhile, the expression of melatonin key synthase genes, such as tryptophan decarboxylase genes (BjTDC 1, BjTDC 2) and serotonin N-acetyltransferase genes (BjSNAT 1), were significantly induced by heat stress, which coincided with the trend of melatonin content. Under the heat stress, a total of 172 differential abundance proteins were confidently identified in mustard sprouts and participated in many physiological processes. Functional classification analysis showed that the defense/pressure, energy and nucleotide metabolism, protein biosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription etc. were largely induced. Heat treatment stimulated a defense response at the protein level by regulating the growth and physiological metabolism in mustard sprouts. The results in this work provided novel deep insights into the proteins' response to heat stress, which will certainly promote further understanding of the heat-tolerance mechanism of mustard sprouts.