Recent advances in the chemistry of benzo[e][1,2,4]triazinyl radicals†
Benzo[e][1,2,4]triazinyl, or Blatter radicals, are stable free radicals, first reported by Blatter in 1968. In contrast to their nitroxide counterparts, their properties can be modified more widely and more easily through simple substitution changes. This, together with recent developments in their synthesis, now places them at the forefront of developing applications in functional materials. Herein, we survey the various methods to synthesise and customise Blatter radicals, highlighting key developments in the last decade that have transformed their utility. We then outline their important spectroscopic, structural, electrochemical, magnetic and chemical properties and how these depend on their chemical structure and morphology. Finally, we review their growing list of applications including as sensors, spin labels, magnetic materials, liquid crystals and in polymer and small molecule synthesis.