Ultrafine Bi–Sn nanoparticles decorated on carbon aerogels for electrochemical simultaneous determination of dopamine (neurotransmitter) and clozapine (antipsychotic drug)†
This present study describes the synthesis of ultrafine Bi–Sn nanoparticles decorated on carbon aerogels (Bi–Sn NP/CAG) as a nanocomposite for the electrochemical simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and clozapine (CLZ). The typical characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman, BET, FT-IR, TGA, XPS, and FE-SEM/TEM, showed useful insights into the crystal phase and morphology of Bi–Sn NP/CAG. Integrated Bi–Sn NP/CAG built into a cost-effective screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) offers a high electrochemical surface area (ECSA) compared to unmodified, Bi–Sn, and CAG/SPCEs, such that it favourably allowed the binding of DA and CLZ molecules onto the surface at the Bi–Sn/CAG, which was demonstrated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. As a result, the DA and CLZ sensing exhibited low detection limits (DL, 4.6 and 97.6 nM (S/N = 3)), and sensitivity (3.402 and 0.4 μA μM−1 cm−2) over a wide linear range (0.02–97.59 and 0.5–2092 μM), respectively. To go a step further, the Bi–Sn NP/CAG/SPCE was applied for the simultaneous determination of DA and CLZ which featured lower DL (23.1 and 31.3 nM (S/N = 3)), and sensitivity (0.4979 and 0.04 μA μM−1 cm−2) over a wide linear range (2–182 and 10–910 μM), respectively. The selectivity for DA and CLZ in the presence of a 10-fold concentration of their potentially interfering active species was demonstrated. Finally, this sensing methodology enables the rapid electrochemical determination of the amount of DA and CLZ in a rat brain region serum sample with successful recovery outcomes.