Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Continuous flow processing of bismuth-photocatalyzed atom transfer radical addition reactions using an oscillatory flow reactor

Author affiliations

Abstract

Metal oxides represent an abundant and non-toxic class of photocatalysts for organic transformations. However, their use in larger scale processes is complicated by incompatibilities with continuous flow processing – a proven scale-up route for photochemistry. We detail the development of an efficient atom transfer radical addition protocol using a sustainable solvent system (acetone : PEG 400) and a low loading (2 mol%) of Bi2O3, which can be handled in an oscillatory flow reactor. Optimization of the reaction and oscillatory parameters led to high throughput (36 g in 4 h, 89% yield, 599 g L−1 h−1), with a process mass intensity (PMI) of just 8.5. The process also facilitates high recyclability (3 cycles with no loss of yield), and was demonstrated to be applicable to a range of other substrates on multigram scale, in moderate to excellent yields.

Graphical abstract: Continuous flow processing of bismuth-photocatalyzed atom transfer radical addition reactions using an oscillatory flow reactor

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Sep 2020
Accepted
25 Nov 2020
First published
26 Nov 2020

Green Chem., 2021, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Continuous flow processing of bismuth-photocatalyzed atom transfer radical addition reactions using an oscillatory flow reactor

P. Bianchi, J. D. Williams and C. O. Kappe, Green Chem., 2021, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0GC03070H

Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements