Nelumbo nucifera leaf polyphenol extract and gallic acid inhibit TNF-α-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration involving the regulation of miR-21, miR-143 and miR-145†
Nelumbo nucifera leaf water extract (NLE) attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced rabbit atherosclerosis, but its mechanism of action and the relevant compounds remain unclear. Modulating the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may be an enforceable strategy for atherosclerosis prevention. Therefore, we investigated the potential mechanisms of N. nucifera leaf polyphenol extract (NLPE) and its active ingredient gallic acid (GA) in VSMC proliferation and migration. A7r5 rat aortic VSMCs were provoked using 50 ng mL−1 tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; the NLPE or GA reduced the TNF-α-induced migration by inhibiting the transforming protein RhoA/cell division cycle protein 42 pathway. The NLPE or GA suppressed the TNF-α-induced VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the Ras pathway and increasing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), kinase suppressor of Ras 2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The NLPE or GA increased PTEN expression by downregulating microRNA (miR)-21 expression and reduced Ras and RhoA expression by upregulating miR-143 and miR-145 expression. The NLPE and GA use potentially prevents atherosclerosis by inhibiting the VSMC migration and proliferation. The mechanisms involve the regulation of the miRNA in PTEN, the Ras/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase pathway, and Rho family proteins.