Cissus quadrangularis (veldt grape) attenuates disease progression and anatomical changes in mono sodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced knee osteoarthritis in the rat model
The Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) stem has interesting nutritional and pharmacological properties to promote the health of the skeletal system. It is a well-recognized plant in the conventional system of medicine in India for treating bone and joint-associated complications. This study focuses on identifying the active constituents from the stem and root extracts of CQ and validating its anti-osteoarthritic activity by the in vivo model. Notable levels of phenolics and flavonoids were found in the ethanol extracts of both CQ stem (CQSE) and root (CQRE), among other solvent fractions. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of these selective extracts resulted in different classes of active compounds from both positive and negative ionization modes. By analyzing their mass spectra and fragmentation pattern, 25 active compounds were identified. The CQSE and CQRE extracts, along with the standard drug (naproxen), were further tested in mono-sodium iodoacetate-induced experimental OA animals. The modulatory effects of the test extracts were assessed by haematology, synovial and cartilage marker profiling, radiology and histopathological analysis. The in vivo findings from the biochemical and physiological studies have led to the conclusion that the CQSE extract is a good choice for the management of OA. The results were substantially better than CQ root extract and naproxen drug-treated groups. Thus, CQS has bioactive constituents, which could facilitate recovery from joint tissue damage, cellular metabolism and associated risk factors attributable to dysfunctions in OA incidence and progression.