Photodegradation of antihistamine chlorpheniramine using a novel iron-incorporated carbon material and solar radiation†
Water pollution due to emerging contaminants is a topic that should be researched to a greater extent because of the ignorance of adverse effects these pollutants may have on living beings. For this reason, the implementation of tertiary treatments is important for the removal of these contaminants from aqueous effluents including the heterogeneous photo-Fenton like (HPFL) process. In this investigation, an organic carbon xerogel incorporated with Fe3+ (XFe) has been used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of the antihistamine chlorpheniramine in an aqueous media with pH 3 at room temperature. The characterization of the material revealed the presence of Fe(III) and oxygenated groups on the surface as well as its ability to be activated with visible radiation, thereby, making it a viable material for the oxidation of contaminants present in the aqueous phase. The kinetic study has revealed that the degradation kinetic constants were 4.20 × 10−1 min−1 and 1.57 × 10−3 min−1 for HPFL and photolysis processes, respectively, revealing that the oxidation process is favored in the presence of the carbonaceous material. The by-products derived from various post-degradation processes presented low toxicity when verified by cytotoxicity tests. Moreover, the catalyst activation mechanism demonstrated that the process occurs through the formation of the ˙HO radical. In conclusion, the HPFL process was the most feasible for the degradation of chlorpheniramine in aqueous media, as it had greater interaction with the ˙HO radical in the rupture of the contaminant.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Open Access Articles and Drinking water oxidation and disinfection processes