Tube-type passive sampling of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) and benzene series simultaneously in indoor air: uptake rate determination and field application†
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) and benzene series compounds have attracted increasing attention because they are associated with various adverse health effects. In this study, we developed and validated a novel passive air sampling method (PAS), using Tenax-TA as the sorbent, to measure the concentrations of cVMSs (D4, D5, and D6) and benzene series compounds simultaneously in indoor air. The uptake rates (R), which were calibrated side-by-side by an active air sampling method (Tenax-TA-AAS), ranged from 0.10 to 0.56 mL min−1 depending on chemicals, and the R of the TD tube with Tenax-TA was controlled by the sampler material-side and not the air-side. The passive sampling efficiency (PSE) of styrene and m,p-xylene was close to 1. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, a negative correlation was found between the molecular weight of compounds and their uptake rates. Furthermore, the calibrated Tenax-TA-PAS method was used to quantify cVMSs and benzene series compounds in a living room and an office environment in the urban area of Dalian, China. The concentrations of toluene were the highest in both the living room (10.4 μg m−3) and office (7.02 μg m−3) among the target compounds.