Recent advances in nanostructured transition metal phosphides: synthesis and energy-related applications
Energy is an indispensable component in the development of modern society. Nanostructured transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have recently emerged as versatile and efficient catalysts in the fields of clean production of fossil fuels, renewable energies, and energy storage technologies. In this review, popular strategies to fabricate TMPs are initially summarized. Then, we present the diverse applications of TMPs as active catalysts in thermocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and energy storage techniques, with special emphasis on the dependence of reaction activities on the features of TMPs. Throughout the various applications of TMPs, it can be inferred that TMPs themselves play key roles in some cases. While in other cases, it is the synergistic effect of surface oxidation and intrinsic TMPs that is responsible for the high reaction performances. At last, the future perspectives of TMPs are pointed out.