Materials chemistry and engineering in metal halide perovskite lasers
The invention and development of the laser have revolutionized science, technology, and industry. Metal halide perovskites are an emerging class of semiconductors holding promising potential in further advancing the laser technology. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive overview of metal halide perovskite lasers from the viewpoint of materials chemistry and engineering. After an introduction to the materials chemistry and physics of metal halide perovskites, we present diverse optical cavities for perovskite lasers. We then comprehensively discuss various perovskite lasers with particular functionalities, including tunable lasers, multicolor lasers, continuous-wave lasers, single-mode lasers, subwavelength lasers, random lasers, polariton lasers, and laser arrays. Following this a description of the strategies for improving the stability and reducing the toxicity of metal halide perovskite lasers is provided. Finally, future research directions and challenges toward practical technology applications of perovskite lasers are provided to give an outlook on this emerging field.