An analysis of electrophilic aromatic substitution: a “complex approach”†
Electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) is one of the most widely researched transforms in synthetic organic chemistry. Numerous studies have been carried out to provide an understanding of the nature of its reactivity pattern. There is now a need for a concise and general, but detailed and up-to-date, overview. The basic principles behind EAS are essential to our understanding of what the mechanisms underlying EAS are. To date, textbook overviews of EAS have provided little information about the mechanistic pathways and chemical species involved. In this review, the aim is to gather and present the up-to-date information relating to reactivity in EAS, with the implication that some of the key concepts will be discussed in a scientifically concise manner. In addition, the information presented herein suggests certain new possibilities to advance EAS theory, with particular emphasis on the role of modern instrumental and theoretical techniques in EAS reactivity monitoring.