Advances and challenges for experiment and theory for multi-electron multi-proton transfer at electrified solid–liquid interfaces
Multi-electron, multi-proton transfer is important in a wide spectrum of processes spanning biological, chemical and physical systems. These reactions have attracted significant interest due to both fundamental curiosity and potential applications in energy technology. In this Perspective Review, we shed light on modern aspects of electrode processes in the 21st century, in particular on the recent advances and challenges in multistep electron/proton transfers at solid–liquid interfaces. Ongoing developments of analytical techniques and operando spectrometry at electrode/electrolyte interfaces and reliable computational approaches to simulate complicated interfacial electrochemical reactions enable us to obtain microscopic insights about these complex processes, such as the role of quantum effects in electrochemical reactions. Our motivation in this Perspective Review is to provide a comprehensive survey and discussion of state-of-the-art developments in experiments, materials, and theories for modern electrode process science, as well as to present an outlook for the future directions in this field.