Synthesis of Na2Ti3O7 nanorods by a V-assisted route and investigation of their battery performance
We report the V-assisted synthesis of Na2Ti3O7 nanorods via a conventional solid state reaction technique. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping showed that V-ions are not incorporated into the main structure of the nanorods but rather V behaves as a flux agent during the growth of the nanorods. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis of the samples shows changes in the redox peaks as a function of V content. Our detailed ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analyses after 1000 cycles show that the degradation mechanism is the formation of various titanium oxide impurity phases which inhibits the Na-ion diffusion.