Nanocrystals of platinum-group metals as peroxidase mimics for in vitro diagnostics
Peroxidase mimics of nanoscale materials as alternatives to natural peroxidases have found widespread uses in biomedicine. Among various types of peroxidase mimics, platinum-group metal (PGM) nanocrystals have drawn considerable attention in recent years due to their superior properties. Particularly, PGM nanocrystals display high catalytic efficiencies, allow for facile surface modifications, and possess excellent stabilities. This feature article summarizes our recent work on development of PGM nanocrystals as peroxidase mimics and exploration of their applications in in vitro diagnostics. We begin with a brief introduction to controlled synthesis of PGM nanocrystals in solution phase. We then elaborate on a variety of physicochemical parameters that can be carefully tuned to optimize the peroxidase-like properties of PGM nanocrystals. Then, we highlight the applications of PGM nanocrystals in different in vitro diagnostic platforms. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on future research directions in this emerging field, where challenges and opportunities are remarked.