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Issue 39, 2020
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Designing signal-on sensors by regulating nanozyme activity

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Abstract

Nanozymes are nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities. Compared to natural enzymes, nanozymes are more stable and cost-effective, and they have unique properties due to their nanoscale size and surface chemistry. In this review, we summarize ‘signal-on’ nanozyme-based sensors for detecting metal ions, anions, small molecules and proteins. Since protein-based enzymes are already highly active, they were used to detect their inhibitors, resulting in ‘signal-off’ sensors. On the other hand, for nanozymes, target molecules were detected either as a promotor of nanozyme activity or for its ability to selectively remove nanozyme inhibitors. In both cases, ‘signal-on’ detection was achieved. We classify the commonly used nanozymes based on their composition such as metal oxide, gold nanoparticles and other nanomaterials, most of which belong to the oxidase, peroxidase and catalase mimics. The nanozymes can catalyze the oxidation of colorless or non-fluorescent substrates to produce a visual or fluorescent signal. Based on this, this article presents some typical ‘turn-on’ and ‘turn-off–on’ sensors, and we critically review their design principles. At the end, further perspectives for the nanozyme-based sensors are outlined.

Graphical abstract: Designing signal-on sensors by regulating nanozyme activity

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Article information


Submitted
27 Aug 2020
Accepted
23 Sep 2020
First published
23 Sep 2020

Anal. Methods, 2020,12, 4708-4723
Article type
Critical Review

Designing signal-on sensors by regulating nanozyme activity

Y. Chang, S. Gao, M. Liu and J. Liu, Anal. Methods, 2020, 12, 4708
DOI: 10.1039/D0AY01625J

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