Benzoquinone alters the lipid homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae†
Objective: To elucidate the impact of benzoquinone (BQ) on lipid homeostasis and cytotoxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods: The impact of BQ exposure on wild-type and knockouts of PC biosynthesizing genes revealed the alterations in the lipids that were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, thin layer chromatography, and gene expression studies. Results: In yeast, BQ exposure reduced the growth pattern in wild-type cells. The gene knockout strains of the phospholipid metabolism altered the mRNA expression of the apoptosis genes – both caspase-dependent and independent. The BQ exposure revealed an increase in both the phospholipids and neutral lipids via the CDP:DAG and the Kennedy pathway genes. The accumulation of both neutral lipids and phospholipids during the BQ exposure was discrete and regulated by different pathways. Conclusions: BQ exposure inhibited cell growth, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS), and altered membrane proliferation. The CDP:DAG and Kennedy pathway lipids also discretely altered by BQ, which is required for the membrane functions and energy purposes of life.